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Cairney, Gina. (March 15, 2013). Education Week: Experts Make a Case for Later School Start Times. Education Week (http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/03/15/26sleep.h32.html). MS Word.

Mystery still surrounds what sleep is actually for, but multiple research studies suggest that it is critical to brain development, memory function, and cognitive skills, especially among children and teenagers, according to experts and advocates at a symposium here last week. MS Word

Gallagher, CA. (). The threshold effect of crowding on injurites from violance in juvenile justice facilities. Criminal Justice and Behavior. .

This study examines the effects of the level of crowding on the odds of interpersonal violence requiring emergency medical care in these facilities. Controlling for facility and population characteristics, results suggest a threshold effect such that any amount of crowding equally affects the odds of serious violence. A finding of concern is that Black and Hispanic adolescents are significantly more likely to be placed in crowded facilities.

Gallagher, CA and Dobrin A. (2006). Deaths in juvenile residential facilities. J Adolesc Health. Vol. 38, No. 6, 662-668.

The risk of death for young people in juvenile justice facilities is about eight percent higher than the death rate for the general population aged 15-to-19 once rates are adjusted for the number of days of risk exposure. There were important differences in the rate of specific types of death between the populations (juvenile justice facility and general). The death rate from accidental injury and homicide was lower for young people in juvenile justice facilities. Placement in a juvenile justice facility, however, dramatically increases the risk of suicide and deaths from illnesses and natural causes.

Gallagher, CA and Dobrin A. (2006). Facility-level characteristics associated with serious suicide attempts and deaths from suicide in juvenile justice residential facilities. Suicide Life Threat Behavior. Vol. 36569-582.

Results suggest highest risks for facilities housing larger populations of Black young people, and for facilities locking sleeping room doors. Lower risks are found for facilities screening all young people within 24 hours of arrival.

Gallagher, Catherine A. and Adam Dobrin. (2007). The comparative risk of suicide in juvenile facilities and the general population: The problem of rate calculation in high turnover institutions. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Vol. 34, No. 10, 1362-1376.

Two recent publications have reported vastly different rates of suicide in juvenile justice residential facilities using the same data. Similarly, divergent rates were calculated on juvenile suicides in custody using the same data in the 1980s. Using data from the Juvenile Residential Facility Census and the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, this paper demonstrates the underlying differences in the suicide rate calculations by drawing on the historical and epidemiological literature. It highlights the arithmetical relationships between the rates, and suggests which methods are best depending on the purpose of the exercise.

Gallagher, Catherine A. and Adam Dobrin. (2005). The association between suicide screening practices and attempts requiring emergency care in juvenile justice facilities. The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Phychiatry. Vol. 44, No. 5, 485-493.

Controlling for facility characteristics, screening and entire facility propulation within the first 24 hours after arrival is significantly linked to lower odds of serious suicide attempts (odds ratio = 0.23-0.65). Facilities screening just some of their population in a two-to-seven day window after arrival exhibited significantly higher odds of serious suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.30-4.73). Conclusions: Results suggest that facility-level risks of serious suicide attempts may be reduced by screening every child and adolescent entering a juvenile justice facility within the 24 hour window directly following arrivall, regardless of the facility size, and of whether the youths came directly from another facility within the system.

Gallagher, Catherine A., Adam Dobrin and Anne S. Douds. (2007). A national overview of reproductive health care services for girls in juvenile justice residential facilities. Women's Health Issues. Vol. 17, No. 4, 217-226.

Most JJRFs serving girls (about 85%) report that gynecological exams can be made available, however, not to the full population of girls. The bulk of JJRFs able to garner this service (between 69 and 83%) note that these exams are provided “as necessary” to some girls, typically based on self-reports of sexually activity, suspected pregnancy, or by the recommendation of a health care provider. Multivariate modeling suggests that the provision of a gynecological exam to all girls/yound women is significantly more likely in all female, state-owned, large population and longer stay facilities and less likely in short stay, mixed-sex, crowded and locally and privately ownded facilities.

Douds A, Gallagher CA and Dobrin A. (2006). Gender equivalence in the provision of health services in juvenile justice residential facilities. Corrections Today. Vol. 68, No. 4, 51-53.

The results indicate fairly clearly that there are no patent gender inequitities in the provision of health care within JJRFs. The results do, however, highlight that mixed-sex facilities are comparatively underserved relative to same-sex facilities. It is highly likely, however, that this finding is merely capturing some confounding between the type of facility, sex composition, and health services. Specifically, because mixed-sex facilities are more often detention centers, and because detention centers more often have much shorter windows of opportuntiy for supplying health care, it may be that it is not the mixed-sex status of the facility producing lower service coverage but rather the fact that mixed-sex facilities are disproportionately detention centers.

Gallagher, Catherine A. and Adam Dobrin. (2007). Can juvenile justice detention facilities meet the call of the American Academy of Pediatrics and National Commission on Correctional Health Care? A national analyis of current practices. Pediatrics. Vol. 119, No. 4, 991-1001.

Juvenile detention centers are partially (rather than fully) meeting some of the minimum standards. Overall, most services can be garnered at some level; however, they tend to be provided on an ad hoc basis for portions of the population rather than systematically for the whole. Dentention centers most likely to provide a higher tier of services tend to be those that have longer than average lengths of stay, are larger, and are government owned. There are also geographic and racial difference in quality and scope of health services.

Winland-Brown, Jill E., and Adam L. Dobrin. (2009). A comparison of physicians' and nurses' responses to selected ethical dilemmas. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table. Spring.

Dobrin, Adam and Catherine A. Gallagher. (2004). Escapes from juvenile justice residential facilities: An examiniation of the independent and additive effects of security components. Journal for Juvenile Justice Dentention Services. Vol. 19, No. 1-2, 47-57.

Dobrin, Adam, and John Brusk. (2003). The risk of offending on homicide victimization: A public health concern. American Journal of Health Behaviors. Vol. 27, No. (6), 603-612.